West Africa: empirehood and colonialism offer lessons in integration

The dream of the founding fathers of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was, among others, to foster trade and development among member states. But the integration dream will only be realised if institutional barriers to trade are addressed. These include poor protection of trade routes, weak enforcement, the fact that traders don’t know their rights and how to make complaints, and the lack of a common currency in the region.

The union has relied on agreements and announcements to meet its integration goals. But they aren’t enough. ECOWAS needs to operate beyond the office and paper agreements. It needs to establish physical operations at border points.

Leaders have lessons to learn from history – both ancient and recent. Our latest study shows that policymakers concerned with deepening integration in ECOWAS should look back in time to regional trade institutions in West Africa.
How empires laid the foundation for integration

Western Sudan experienced three major empires – Ghana, Mali and Songhai – from around 790 to 1650 AD. These empires covered most of present day West Africa and, to some extent, defined the precolonial history of the region. They laid the foundations for standards governing regional trade. For example, the Mali Empire – which succeeded and absorbed the Ghana Empire – adopted the import and export taxes it found. The Mali and Songhai empires – through consensus, trust and cooperation – subsumed more than 24 lesser kings under their authority.

The expansion of empires by absorbing other empires gradually led to common trade taxes and institutions. The Mande charter of 1236 was particularly important. The charter is one of the oldest constitutions in the world although in oral form. It brought clans and small kingdoms together and codified how they were governed. It’s provisions entrenched tolerance and social peace among diverse groups through the building of trust and cooperation. Citizens of different clans and kingdoms agreed to live under one king in order to maintain peace, protect trade routes and harmonise trade rules.

In those ancient times, intra-West African trade was extensive with cowrie shells, gold, copper, manillas and cloth acting as common currencies and facilitating trade in the region.

But the last major empire in West Africa – Songhai – collapsed around 1650, creating a power vacuum that resulted in internal conflicts. This gave rise to inward looking kingdoms, and marked another turning point in the development of trade institutions in West Africa.
Slave trade, colonialism and regional institutions

The conventional argument is that the Atlantic slave trade (1500 and 1900) and subsequent colonisation (1885 – late 1960s) interrupted the natural development of institutions in the region. But it’s important to note that institutions such as common currencies, single administration, contract enforcement through chiefs and a common education system were put in place. These institutions continue to be important in promoting regional trade.

Colonialism led to a production structure that served international rather than regional trade. Europeans were interested in trade flows between Europe and West Africa, where West Africa provided the raw materials for manufactured goods.

Despite the potential practical benefits, enthusiasm to preserve the institutions of the colonial powers gradually waned, particularly in the British colonies. Apart from the West African Examination Council – which designed a uniform curriculum and examination materials for all the British West African colonies – other institutions in the former British colonies were abandoned after independence. Things were somewhat different in the French colonies where the single currency and some of the other institutions of colonial times were maintained.

During colonial times, contracts were enforced and disputes settled in ways similar to the empirehood period. Chiefs in the colonial era communicated the value of the colonial currency to the locals and taught them how to avoid exploitation. These chiefs were synonymous to the representatives in provinces during the empirehood.

But the protection of trade routes was more standardised and better enforced during the empirehood than it was in the colonial period. For example, during the colonial period, the influence of European traders gradually replaced that of the chiefs, and consequently led to bandits and robbers attacking trade routes.

Just as the royal armies patrolled trade routes and royal officials in the provinces monitored arrangements during the empirehood, ECOWAS needs to deploy personnel to patrol trade routes as well as place staff at border points to monitor how trade takes place.
Deep integration

The empirehood and colonial eras offer a practical case study for West Africa to have the confidence that deep integration is feasible.

Over the longer term, a federal style administration could be a sustainable approach to deeper integration. For example, West Africa could be clustered into zones where each zone has an elected head of state on a rotational basis. But it would require strong political will to give up national sovereignty. This can only be considered if it can be demonstrated that the benefits would be greater than under current arrangements.

Some progress has been made. A common external tariff for the region came into force in 2015. And more economic integration is happening with the establishment of the West African Economic and Monetary Union and the West African Monetary Zone.

In the shorter term, we also suggest that regional trade institutions such as a common currency, enforcement of contracts and protection of trade routes become more standardised. In addition, ECOWAS needs to use the media to tell people about their rights. It must also be ready to punish those who harass traders, and to give incentives to its officers to reduce the motivation to take bribes.

These steps worked in the empirehood era. They worked in the colonial era. They will work today to foster trade among member states and integrate the West African region.

215 thoughts on “West Africa: empirehood and colonialism offer lessons in integration”

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  49. Xu Lanfang reminded male friends that in addition to Granville, medicines such as Cialis and Viratron are all prescription drugs. Therefore, they must be prescribed by a doctor and taken after instructions. Do not take other people’s medicines casually.

  50. The ingredient of Japanese rattan contains red root grass, which is pungent and sweet and warm in nature. It can replenish the life gate and nourish vital energy. The red root grass can activate the body’s vitality, activate testosterone, and can effectively repair self-damaged cells.

  51. The secret story before Weiergang rescued men. 2018/09/06 Editor/. 20 years ago, Weiergang came out and saved the sex lives of many men (and their sexual partners). However, in Veergang, the men’s bedside table was captured.

  52. Sexual stimulation is a necessary condition for Granville to exert its efficacy. The stronger the sexual stimulation, the better the efficacy. Emotions, fatigue, anxiety, and the cooperation of a partner will affect the male’s sexual response, and it will also affect the role of Weiergang.

  53. Sildenafil (English: Sildenafil), also translated as sildenafil, is a drug for male erectile dysfunction accidentally invented during the development of drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. For controlled drugs, they can be prescribed for use only after a doctor’s diagnosis.

  54. Priligy (English name: Priligy Chemical name: Dapoxetine hydrochloride) is currently the only drug developed for premature ejaculation (PE) and the only premature ejaculation approved by the State Food and Drug Administration (CEDA).

  55. Cialis, also known as taranafil (English names: cialisr, chinacialisr), is the world’s three major aphrodisiac–? Produced by Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals in the United States. Its efficacy is as long as 36 hours. It is the first choice for sexual dysfunction.

  56. Xu Lanfang reminded male friends that in addition to Granville, medicines such as Cialis and Viratron are all prescription drugs. Therefore, they must be prescribed by a doctor and taken after instructions. Do not take other people’s medicines casually.

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  58. Sildenafil (English: Sildenafil), also translated as sildenafil, is a drug for male erectile dysfunction accidentally invented during the development of drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. For controlled drugs, they can be prescribed for use only after a doctor’s diagnosis.

  59. This site provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of Cialis, evaluation of Cialis, and side effects of Cialis. Cialis? As the first-choice health food for men’s impotence health care, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and has a significant prolongation for men.

  60. Viagra (Taiwan name: Viagra) is an oral treatment drug developed by Pfizer, USA. It is used to treat erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation, and has a very significant improvement in erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

  61. Viagra (Taiwan name: Viagra) is an oral treatment drug developed by Pfizer, USA. It is used to treat erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation, and has a very significant improvement in erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

  62. If you can’t even get an erection, eating Granville is useless! Xu Lanfang explained that male erections need to receive sexual stimulation, such as A-films, A-books, and other sexual desire content, at which time the brain will release.

  63. Priligy (English name: Priligy Chemical name: Dapoxetine hydrochloride) is currently the only drug developed for premature ejaculation (PE) and the only premature ejaculation approved by the State Food and Drug Administration (CEDA).

  64. The ingredient of Japanese rattan contains red root grass, which is pungent and sweet and warm in nature. It can replenish the life gate and nourish vital energy. The red root grass can activate the body’s vitality, activate testosterone, and can effectively repair self-damaged cells.

  65. This site provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of Cialis, evaluation of Cialis, and side effects of Cialis. Cialis? As the first-choice health food for men’s impotence health care, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and has a significant prolongation for men.

  66. Sildenafil (English: Sildenafil), also translated as sildenafil, is a drug for male erectile dysfunction accidentally invented during the development of drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. For controlled drugs, they can be prescribed for use only after a doctor’s diagnosis.

  67. Cialis is used to treat male erectile dysfunction (ED). Its pharmacology is to relax the smooth muscles of the corpus cavernosum, which facilitates rapid congestion of the penis to achieve a satisfactory firm erection.

  68. Basically, the blue Viagra is a well-known old medicine, while the yellow Cialis has a long-lasting effect. As for Levitron, the side effects caused by the lower dose are less, so that Taiwan’s annual sales can be expected to reach. Multi-billion dollar market.

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  71. Cialis, also known as taranafil (English names: cialisr, chinacialisr), is the world’s three major aphrodisiac–? Produced by Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals in the United States. Its efficacy is as long as 36 hours. It is the first choice for sexual dysfunction.

  72. This site provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of Cialis, evaluation of Cialis, and side effects of Cialis. Cialis? As the first-choice health food for men’s impotence health care, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and has a significant prolongation for men.

  73. Priligy (English name: Priligy Chemical name: Dapoxetine hydrochloride) is currently the only drug developed for premature ejaculation (PE) and the only premature ejaculation approved by the State Food and Drug Administration (CEDA).

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  75. This site provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of Cialis, evaluation of Cialis, and side effects of Cialis. Cialis? As the first-choice health food for men’s impotence health care, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and has a significant prolongation for men.

  76. Basically, the blue Viagra is a well-known old medicine, while the yellow Cialis has a long-lasting effect. As for Levitron, the side effects caused by the lower dose are less, so that Taiwan’s annual sales can be expected to reach. Multi-billion dollar market.

  77. Viagra (Taiwan name: Viagra) is an oral treatment drug developed by Pfizer, USA. It is used to treat erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation, and has a very significant improvement in erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

  78. Sexual stimulation is a necessary condition for Granville to exert its efficacy. The stronger the sexual stimulation, the better the efficacy. Emotions, fatigue, anxiety, and the cooperation of a partner will affect the male’s sexual response, and it will also affect the role of Weiergang.

  79. Sildenafil (English: Sildenafil), also translated as sildenafil, is a drug for male erectile dysfunction accidentally invented during the development of drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. For controlled drugs, they can be prescribed for use only after a doctor’s diagnosis.

  80. Sexual stimulation is a necessary condition for Granville to exert its efficacy. The stronger the sexual stimulation, the better the efficacy. Emotions, fatigue, anxiety, and the cooperation of a partner will affect the male’s sexual response, and it will also affect the role of Weiergang.

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  83. คาสิโนออนไลน์เป็นวิถีทางหาเงินที่เหล่านักเล่นการพนันต่างเลือกด้วยเหตุว่าเป็นช่องทางที่หารายได้ได้ทุกที่ที่ต้องการ UFABET ได้เก็บรวบรวมเกมออนไลน์ทั้งยังหน้าเก่าหน้าใหม่มาไว้อย่างครบถ้วน เป็นเว็บคาสิโนออนไลน์ที่รับประกันว่าจ่ายจริงไม่มีโกง ใช้ระบบฝากถอนอัตโนมัติไม่ผ่านผู้แทนอะไรก็ตาม

  84. อยากมีรายได้แต่ว่าไม่ได้อยากต้องการเดินทางไปไหน ปรารถนามีรายได้แม้กระนั้นไม่ต้องการลงทุนจำนวนมาก เพราะยุคนี้เป็นยุคที่ใครๆก็จำเป็นต้องเซพตนเอง UFABET ก็เลยได้เก็บรวบรวมเกมออนไลน์ไว้ล้นหลามเพื่อคุณได้ทำเงินสร้างรายได้แบบง่ายๆทั้งยังบาคาร่า พนันบอล สล็อต

  85. ยุคนี้อะไรที่ง่ายสะดวกแล้วก็ปลอดภัยย่อมดีมากกว่าเสมอ พนันบอลก็แบบเดียวกัน สมัยปัจจุบันนี้ ยุคนี้จึงควรพนันบอลออนไลน์แค่นั้น UFABET เว็บแทงบอลออนไลน์ที่เก็บรวบรวมเกมคาสิโนไว้ไม่น้อยเลยทีเดียว ค้ำประกันความน่าไว้ใจ จ่ายจริงควรต้อง UFABET

  86. ตอนแรกผมว่าเว็บไซต์ไหนก็แบบเดียวกัน เนื่องด้วยเข้าไปก็พบเกมเดิมๆแต่ว่าเอาเข้าจริงๆมันแตกต่างกันครับ ยิ่งเว็บไซต์ไหนที่เวลาฝากถอนจะต้องผ่านบุคลากรอันนี้ผมไม่ชอบสุดเลย เสียเวล่ำเวลา ส่วนตัวผมว่า UFABET ดีสุดเลยครับผม เค้าใช้ระบบอัตโนมัติ

  87. เพราะว่ายุคสมัยเปลี่ยนการใช้ชีวิตของคนในยุคนี้ก็เปลี่ยนคาสิโนออนไลน์ก็เลยเป็นหนทางที่ชาวพนันเลือก ด้วยเหตุว่าง่าย สะดวกยิ่งเว็บไซต์ UFABET ได้รวบรวมเกมเด็ดๆไว้เยอะแยะรวมทั้งที่สำคัญไปกว่านั้นเป็นเว็บไซต์ที่ค้ำประกันว่าจ่ายจริง ทำเงินได้จริงทำให้เป็นที่กล่าวถึงในโลกอินเตอร์เน็ตเยอะมาก

  88. เกมสล็อตออนไลน์ที่ UFABET เป็นเกมสล็อตที่มีผู้กล่าวถึงเยอะที่สุด เพราะว่าแตกง่าย จ่ายจริง จ่ายไว รวมทั้งทั้งยังภาพกราฟฟิคที่สวยสดงดงาม เหมือนจริงให้อารมณ์เช่นเดียวกันกับอยู่ใน คาสิโนจริงๆมาตรฐานสุดยอด ใช้งานง่าย แล้วก็มีคณะทำงานคอยให้คำปรึกษาอย่างใกล้ชิดตลอด 1 วัน

  89. สมัยที่ใครๆก็มุ่งมาดปรารถนาความสะดวกสบาย บาคาร่าออนไลน์ก็เลยเป็นตัวเลือกที่โคตรดีสำหรับท่าน UFABET มีบาคาร่าให้เลือกเล่นเยอะมากเราเป็นคาสิโนที่จ่ายจริง ทำเงินได้จริง สมัครง่าย ระบบฝากถอนอัตโนมัติแล้วพบกันขอรับ

  90. ในยุคก่อนจะมีการไปคาสิโนยังคงเป็นเรื่องยุ่งยากผิดกับสมัยนี้ที่การจะเล่นพนันนั้นง่ายสุดๆมากมาย เพียงแต่เข้ามาที่ UFABET เว็บไซต์คาสิโนออนไลน์ที่ได้สะสมเกมคาสิโนมาไว้บนโทรศัพท์มือถือคุณเป็นระเบียบ ต้องการเข้ามาเล่นตอนไหนก็ได้ไม่มีข้อจำกัดเรื่องสถานที่และก็เวลาเลยนะครับ

  91. UFABET เลยจ๊านะครับ ใช้ระบบโคตรดี ใช้ง่ายดายๆเลยครับผม ที่สำคัญที่สุด เค้าจ่ายเงินจริงครับผม เว็บนี้เป็นไม่โดนหลอกแน่ๆแต่ว่าเรื่องจะชนะรึเปล่าแล้วแต่คนนะครับ ผมก็มีได้บ้างเสียบ้าง แม้กระนั้นโดยรวมแล้วจัดว่าได้ครับผม วันนี้ก็พึ่งถอนมานะครับ ชอบใจตรงที่พวกเราฝากถอนไม่ต้อง

  92. สาวกผี สาวกหงส์ สาวกสิงห์ สาวกเรือ สาวกไก่ สาวกสุนัขจิ้งจอก ไม่ว่าคุณจะเป็นสาวกไหนก็ตาม UFABET ขอเป็นส่วนใดส่วนหนึ่งสำหรับเพื่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงสิ่งที่คุณถูกอกถูกใจเป็นรายได้ ด้วยการชูคาสิโนมาไว้ให้แด่คุณแทงบอลออนไลน์ได้อย่างง่ายดายกันเลยขอรับ

  93. The particular graham silverstone duplicate can get its identify inside the popular Silverstone race track which located their very first ethnic background within The late 1940s inside Britain.

  94. อาจจะไม่ยอมรับไม่ลงหากจะพูดว่าคาสิโนออนไลน์เป็นแหล่งวางเดิมพันที่มากมายที่สุด สร้างเงินทำเงินได้ง่ายที่สุดรวมทั้งที่สำคัญไม่มีอันตรายที่สุด UFABET คาสิโนออนไลน์ที่เยี่ยมที่สุดในยุคนี้ ตอบโจทย์ทุกความชื่นชอบของเหล่าสมาชิก

  95. คราวก่อนกล้าๆกลัวๆแม้กระนั้นพอเพียงมาทดลองเล่นที่ UFABETแล้วถูกใจเลยขอรับ สำหรับผมไม่ย้ำร่ำรวย แต่ว่าย้ำอยู่ได้ มานั่งคิดๆดู เสมือนดำเนินงานรายวันเลยค่ะนะครับ เนื่องจากผมทำเงินได้แต่ละวันวันละ 3-4 ร้อย บางทีก็อาจจะไม่มากมายแต่ครบเดือนก็เท่ากับค่าตอบแทนรายเดือนเลยครับผม

  96. In accordance with data collected along with authored by Pambianco Method d’Impresa, your 20 leading Italian twigs involving foreign enjoy along with jewelery organizations throughout 2015 reached the turnover of 1.534 billion dollars, way up Something like 20.3 around 2014. “For data 2016 we need to await combined financial constraints, yet it’s sensible to consentrate there has been a one-digit expansion – claims David Pambianco. The two Sihh of Geneva as well as Baselworld (the most important Western celebration in the market, which shut upon Fri previous), ended up being thoroughly positive. Inch.

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